Data Set Description for Chapter 13: Infringement Cases

Data Exercise Contributor: Jens Wäckerle

Dataset-Chapter-13.utf8

The European Commission provides data on all infringement cases since 2002 on their website. We present the data by member state and then combined the data for the figures you find in the book.

We present the data below. While reading, please keep in mind the questions you see below and answer them once you reached the end. In the end, we provide a link to a platform with an interactive version of the dataset and additional tasks.

Table 1: General Tasks for the Dataset
Tasks
Compared to the overall number of infringement cases, which countries are more likely to see a case against them at the moment?
Which policy areas are more affected by infringement cases and why might that be the case?

Dataset Description

Table shows 2 some of the information in the dataset for the first few infringement cases in the dataset. Each infringement procedure has a Infringement number. Since there can be several steps in each procedure (a formal notice, referral or closing of the procedure), most procedures stretch multiple rows in the dataset. The dataset provides information on the type of decision as well as the policy area that is affected by the infringement and the department that is in charge in the European Commission.

Table 2: Main Variables in the dataset
Infringement_number Decision_date Decision_type Member_state Policy_area___Department_in_charge
19782088 2002/01/10 Formal notice Art. 258 TFEU Germany Taxation and Customs Union
19782088 2003/05/13 Closing of the case Germany Taxation and Customs Union
19880202 2002/03/20 Formal notice Art. 260 TFEU United Kingdom Taxation and Customs Union
19880202 2002/07/17 Reasoned opinion ex Art. 228 EC United Kingdom Taxation and Customs Union
19880202 2003/07/09 Closing of the case United Kingdom Taxation and Customs Union
19900358 2005/07/05 Formal notice Art. 260 TFEU Netherlands Mobility and Transport
19900358 2006/12/12 Closing of the case Netherlands Mobility and Transport
19900388 2002/06/26 Formal notice Art. 260 TFEU Spain Internal Market and services
19900388 2003/04/02 Closing of the case Spain Internal Market and services
19900418 2003/04/02 Formal notice Art. 260 TFEU France Maritime Affairs and Fisheries

Table 3 shows the remaining information in the dataset for the same cases. The dataset contains a title for each case, which is generally in French, It also has indicators whether the infringement case is active at the time of download and whether it relates to an issue of non-communication (i.e. where transposition into national law was late or not reported).

Table 3: Main Variables in the dataset
Infringement_number Member_state Title Active_infringement_cases Non_communication
19782088 Germany IMPORTATION DE MATERIEL SPECIFIQUEMENT MILITAIRE No No
19782088 Germany IMPORTATION DE MATERIEL SPECIFIQUEMENT MILITAIRE No No
19880202 United Kingdom TVA SUR LES PEAGES DES INFRASTRUCTURES ROUTIERES No No
19880202 United Kingdom TVA SUR LES PEAGES DES INFRASTRUCTURES ROUTIERES No No
19880202 United Kingdom TVA SUR LES PEAGES DES INFRASTRUCTURES ROUTIERES No No
19900358 Netherlands NAVIRES COMMERCIAUX - PAVILLON No No
19900358 Netherlands NAVIRES COMMERCIAUX - PAVILLON No No
19900388 Spain RESTRICTIONS LIBRE PRESTATION DES GUIDES TOURISTIQUES No No
19900388 Spain RESTRICTIONS LIBRE PRESTATION DES GUIDES TOURISTIQUES No No
19900418 France MANQUEMENT REPETE A L’OBLIGATION DE CONTROLE No No

While the figures in the book show the number of total cases for the time period 2002 to 2018, we can also look at the active cases at the time of downloading the data (2020). You see those in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Number of Active Cases by Country

Figure 1: Number of Active Cases by Country

Finally, we can look at the policy areas and connected directorate-generals at the Commission for the infringement cases. Figure 2 shows the cases by policy area.

Figure 2: Number of Cases by Policy Area

Figure 2: Number of Cases by Policy Area

Interactive Activity

Here, you will find an interactive version of the infringement dataset and several questions to answer and discuss. We suggest you open this app on a laptop or tablet. Enjoy!

The book introduces students to the most current theoretical and empirical research on European politics, and it does so in a highly accessible way through examples and data visualizations.

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